Comprehensive Biocontrol and IPM Glossary

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A
Abdomen (ahB-Doh-men)
Insects have three body parts, the head, thorax and the abdomen. This describes the end furthest from the head. The butt, if you will.
Allelochemic (ah-LELL-O-kem-ick)
Describes a substance produced by an insect designed to elicit a response from another insect of a different species. An allelochemic substance, Kairomone, produced by aphids attract aphid predators.
Amphimixis (am-fih-MIX-iss)
The mixing of germ plasma between two organisms during sexual reproduction.
ANBP (Abbreviation) (Ayy eNN Bee Pee)
The Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers. This organization is dedicated to smoothing the way to make worldwide biocontrol practices a reality in terms of economics, effectiveness, acceptance, standardization, quality control and assurance, and legislation.
APHIS (Acronym) (ayy-Fiss)
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. A divison of the USDA. The name is hopefully self-evident.
Arthropod (arr-THROW-pahd)
A group of joint-legged organisms, ie, insects, mites, etc.
Asexual (Aa-Sek-shoo-well)
Reproduction without the sex. Typically associated with unicellular organisms like bacteria where reproduction is by way of division or budding. Not fun.
B
Bacterium (bAHK-TEer-ee-um)
A microbe capable of causing disease.
Binomial (bii-NOME-ee-al)
Two Latin names combined, in compliance with the system of taxonomy. Genus and species, for example.
Biocontrol (bii-oh-KOhN-troll)
Using one type of living organism to affect a change in the population density of another organism. In its usage here, it specifically refers to using insects, mites, or nematodes to control common plant pests.
Bioluminescence (bii-oh-loom-eN-esS-SENSE)
The ability of a living organism to produce light.
Biolysis (bii-oLL-IH-Sys)
Dissolution of a living organism. Death.
Biorational (bii-oh-rASH-enn-al)
Pertains to chemical pesticides are their effect on biocontrol agents. As a rule of thumb, if a compound or substance lacks the ability to kill a biocontrol agent within 24 hours of direct contact, it is considered biorational, but this is debatable.
Biota (bii-Oh-tah)
The flora and/or fauna of a particular region.
Botanical (boh-TAN-ih-kal)
Pertaining in this case to a (-cide) compound or substance which is derived from plants.
C
cide (suffix) (syDe)
Kills. Homicide, suicide, pesticide, fungicide, bactericide, etc. See the pattern here?
Cadaver (kah_DAV-‘er)
A dead body; the remains of a body upon death.
Carnivore (karr-neh-Vorr)
An organism which consumes meat only.
Chitins (Kiy-tinnz)
The nearly opaque, protective outer surface of insects (exoskeleton) created by nitrogen containing polysaccharides.
Chlorosis (klorr-OH-sis)
A yellowing, whitening, or paling of plant parts which are normally green, such as interveinal chlorosis which takes pace between leaf veins. The cause is a lack of chlorophyll, the root cause can be insect-, disease-, or nutrient-related.
Clime/Climate (kliime/klii-mahte)
The weather — temperature, humidity, dew point, etc. — conditions of a specific region or area.
Control (kohn-TRol)
As used here, control means to develop active dominance over the pests on one’s plants. It is not elimination, it is, well, simply control.
Cotyledons (Kaht-ee-lee-dunnz)
The seed’s embryo developed into light green “seed leaves” Monocot or single leaf, and dicot or twin leaves.
Crawler (kraWL-luhr)
A nickname for the immature stages of certain insects like scales and mealybugs. The name derives from the fact that they are mobile during their immature stages — in a limited way, albeit, but still mobile.
Cuticle (ku-Teh-kull)
The outer skin, epidermis, shell, or exoskeleton of an arthropod.
D
Desiccant (dess-ih-KANT)
A substance or compound which can dry something. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is one example. It cuts and dries insects.
Detritus (dee-TRy-tiss)
Waste materials, litter, rotting organic matter. Compost is valuable detritus.
Detrivore (deh-Trih-Vorr)
An organism which consumes rotting material (compost) only.
Diapause (dii-ah-PAUZ)
A quiescent state similar to hibernation. Insects will not feed or reproduce while undergoing diapause. Triggered by temperature and/or photoperiod.
Diatoms (dii-ah-TOMZ)
Any of various microscopic single-celled marine algae having cell walls composed of silica and consisting of two interlocking symmetrical valves.
Diatomaceous earth (dii-ah-TOM-ayy-shus errth)
An abrasive and powerful dessicant powder made from the shells of diatoms. Sometimes used as an insecticide component. The sharp particles damage soft-bodied larvae insects causing them to dehydrate and die.
Diurnal (dii-err-Nal)
Hunting, feeding, and general living during the day time.
E
Economic (ee-koh-NOM-ihk)
The point at which a pest infestation can longer be controlled while retaining profitability. OR. At which point a pest infestation becomes bad enough to begin negatively affecting the crop to the degree that it will diminish its saleability.
Ectoparasite (ehK-TOH-pahreh-eh-syTe)
A parasite organism which works from the outside in. Living outside its host. A leech is an example.
Efficacy (eFF-iH-Kah-see)
A non-quantitive measure of effectiveness. Example: Sparying pesticides diminishes the biocontrol agent’s efficacy.
Elemental (ell-eh-MEN-tahl)
A substance in its most basic, raw, pure form.
Embryo (eMM-bree-oh)
A very early, pre-recognizable development egg stage of the unborn insect.
Endoparasite (ehN-DOH-pahreh-eh-syTe)
A parasite which works from the inside out, dwelling within its host. A nematode (the good kind I talk about) is an example.
Entomogenous (enT-TOH-moh-jen-uss)
A parasitic organism which lives in or on arthropods.
Entomology (enT-TOH-moll-oh-jee)
The scientific study of insects, thus one who studies insects is an entomolgist.
Entomopathogenic (enT-TOH-pah-tho-jenn-ihk)
An organism which can kill arthropods by way of poisoning, either through its own toxins or those it harbors.
Entomophagous (enT-TOH-mah-fAH-Gus)
An organism which uses arthropods for sustenance.
EPA (Abbreviation) (Eee Pee Aay)
Environmental Protection Agency. A United States governmental department tasked with protecting US citizens from environmental dangers, unsafe checmical exposures, run-off pollution and more.
Exclusion (eX-kluz-shun)
Use of screen, traps, barriers, etc., as a method of isolating plants from the surrounding pests, or vise-versa.
Excrement (eX-kree-ment)
Feces, droppings, bodily wastes, very often a good sign of insect activity useful to scouts.
Exoskeleton (eK-Soh-skell-eh-ton)
An exterior skeleton. The human skeleton, our bones, for example, are within our bodies. Whereas many insects, carry their structure externally, which affords them physical protection.
F
Fauna (fAHw-Nah)
The animals and arthropods in a given area in general.
Feces (fee-Seez)
Excrement, droppings, bodily wastes, very often a good sign of insect activity useful to scouts.
Fecundity (feh-kunn-DIT-tee)
The ability to reproduce, usually in great numbers. “fecundity rate” is the quantification of fecundity.
Flora (floOR-ah)
The plant life, including fungi (mushrooms, etc.), plants, molds, and the like in a given area in general.
G
Germinate (juhr-min-NAte)
To begin growth or to sprout. Germination.
Good Bug (guhd buhg)
A biological pest control agent, biocontrol agent, or beneficial insect.
H
Herbivore (herr-bah-Vorr)
An organism which consumes plants only.
Hemocyte (hee-moh-Cite)
A cell that plays a role in the immune system of invertebrates.
Hermaphrodite (herr-MAH_Fro_Dyte)
One having the reproductive organs of both sexes. Some can impregnate themselves or fertilize their own eggs, others can not.
Homeostasis (hoo-me-OH-Stay-siss)
A level of stability in an ecosystem. This can apply to any size or scale, even in a micro-sized form.
Hormoligosis (horr-MOH-lee-goh-sis)
A process by which a pesticide-treated plant releases an abundance of free amino acids into its sap, making the plant more nutritious to the pest organisms feeding on its tissues, and resulting in a population explosion of certain pests (e.g., mites) after application.
Honeydew (hohn-nee-doo)
The waste, poop, excrement of certain soft-bodied insects. Ants and others are attracted to this clear, sticky substance.
Host (hohst)
The organism supporting an ecto- or endoparasite.
Hydroponic (hii-droh-PAWN-ick)
A growing technique using water as a way of nourishing plants. Hydroponic growing uses no soil, though it does often employ a medium of some sort, usually something inert such as perlite or rockwool.
Hyperparasite (hii-PERr-pahr-eh-syTe)
A parasite of another parasite.
I
IGR (acronym) (eye Gee arr)
Insect Growth Regulator: A substance or compound which has the ability to stop or hamper the development processes of an immature arthropod.
Indigenous (inn-did-jen-uss)
Of/from the area naturally, or naturally-occurring. A native species or one not introduced artificially.
Insect (inn-sekT)
An arthropod having 3 body parts (head, thorax, abdomen) and six legs. Most, not all, are winged as adults.
Insectivore (inn-sekT-ah-Vorr)
An organism which consumes insects only.
Insectary (inn-sekT-ah-ree)
An operation or system mass-producing insects, mites or nematodes for use in biocontrol activities.
Instar (inN-STARr)
A development stage of an insect. They will often molt between instars as they grow. These stages are typically numbered, first instar, second instar… an so on.
Interveinal (inN-turr-vay-nal)
The portion of a leaf between the leaf veins.
In-vitro (inN-VEE-troh)
To be reared or raised on an artificial or non-living host or development diet.
In-vivo (inN-VEE-voh)
To be reared or raised on a living host.
IPM (Abbreviation) (eye Pee emm)
Integrated Pest Management: Multifaceted pest management where one would use two or more control techniques. In the sense it is used here it involves the use of biocontrol agents, traps, physical means, even, to get all liberal on you and all, chemicals as well.
J
Juvenile (joo-Ven-Nile)
Immature stage, young. You no doubt knew this already.
K
Kairomone (kyy-roh_MONe)
An allelochemic substance produced by a pest which elicits a response in predators and parasitoids. In this case, body odor kills.
L
Larvae (s. larva) (lahR-Vayy)
Larval. A second-stage form of an immature insect which undergoes a complete metamorphosis. The stage before the larval stage would be egg, the stage after would be pupa, and after that is adulthood. A caterpillar is a larva. So is a grub, and so is a “crawler.”
Lipids (liP-Pidz)
Fatty cells. An insect (or any living thing which has them), lives on them between finding and consuming meals. During that time their bodies will consume their own lipids (and eggs will be re-absorbed in females as well).
M
Macro (macK-Kroh)
Being large. In the case here, insects are macroscopic when compared to bacteria which are microscopic.
Mesophyll (mezzo-Fill)
Leaf tissue capable of photosynthesis located between the upper and lower leaf skin surfaces.
Metamorphosis (met-tah-MORe-FOh-siss)
Pertains to the development of arthropods. A change. Some insects undergo a complete metamorphosis going from egg, to numbered larval instars, to the drastic pupal stage to, adulthood. Others undergo an incomplete metamorphosis, going from egg, to numbered nymphal stages, to adulthood, all seemingly more gradual and less dramatic.
Micro (myKe-Kroh)
Being small. Something microscopic which cannot be detected with the unaided human eye. In other uses, a tiny environment, a microclimate, encompassing nothing more than a single leaf.
Microclimate (myKe-Kroh-klii-mahte)
The temperature, humidity, dew point and other climatic conditions specific to a tiny given area. The conditions within the foliage of a plant for example.
Microorganism (myKe-Kroh-ORR-GaN-izm)
A microscopic plant or animal.
Mini-wasps (minn-ee wass’p’s)
Any sort of stingless parasitoid belonging to the order Hymenoptera and used — by humans or naturally — to attack specific pests insects.
Molt (mollT)
An insect undergoing metamorphosis, whether complete or incomplete, will molt or shed its cuticle as it gets older and out grows its old cuticle.
Monitoring (mohn-it-Torr-ing)
Using traps, micro- and macroscopic devices to keep an eye on pest levels and fluctuations.
Monoculture (mohN-oh-Kul-tuur)
A crop consisting on a single plant type or variety.
Multicellular (mull-Tee-SELL-uu-larr)
Organisms consisting or more than one cell. From large animals to tiny insects, all have this in common.
Mummies (muMM-eez)
A type of pupal casing created by the host insect’s exoskeleton. This, for example is the result of parasitism by Aphidius species.
N
Nitrogen (nii-TROH-jen)
An element essential to plant growth. It is found in most fertilizers. Referencing the three digits on fertlizer products, nitrogen is the first. For instance, 5-4-3 equates to 5% nitrogen. High nitorgen content in plants can lead to infestation by aphids.
Nocturnal (mohK-terr-Nal)
Hunting, feeding, and general living at night.
Nomadic (noh-MAD-dikk)
To travel from place to place in response to certain queues, such the availability of food.
Nymph (nimmff)
An intermidiate development stage of an insect which undergoes an incomplete metamorphosis. The nymphal stage. It, too, like Larva, is a numbered instar.
O
Organic (orr-Gann-ihK)
Of, relating to, or derived from living organisms: organic matter. a) Of, marked by, or involving the use of fertilizers or pesticides that are strictly of animal or vegetable origin: organic vegetables; an organic farm. b) Raised or conducted without the use of drugs, hormones, or synthetic chemicals: organic chicken; organic cattle farming.
Organism (orr-Gann-Nism)
A living being. Any living plant or animal consisting of an organized body which has interactive and interdependant parts that perform vital functions.
Ostioles (ahst-ee-Oolz)
A pore or any small opening in the skin or outer surface of an arthorpod.
Ovipositor (ahh-vee-POZ-it-torr)
An egg-layng apparatus found on female insects. It is typically located at the posterior end of the abdomen. Some ovipositors can lay eggs inside the host, some only external of a host or other surface, and others serve more than one purpose. Some social wasps have a modified ovipositor. It is designed to not only deposit eggs (in the cells they build) but can penetrate skin and deliver toxins. We know it as a stinger.
P
Paedogenesis (pay-doh-jen-ee-siss)
When an underdeveloped insect, a larva for instance, reproduces prior to reaching maturity.
Parasite (pahr-eh-syTe)
An organism which lives in or on another organism. This is typically a micro-macro relationship which is on-going. The host usually persists serving the parasite. Sometimes the relationship is symbiotic.
Parasitoid (pahr-eh-syT-toyd)
An organism which lives in or on another organism. This is typically a micro-micro or macro-macro relationship which is temporary. The host typically dies serving the parasitoid, often being no more than an incubator, food source, and nursery for the parasitoid’s offspring. The relationship is never symbiotic.
Parthenogenetic (parr-thenn-Noh-JEN-Net-ihk)
An organism having the ability to reproduce with fetilization or egg development.
Pathogen (pahth-Oh-jenn)
A disease-causing organism.
Perennial (pur-REN-nee-al)
To be, annually: A plant type that, after a typical annual die-back during the winter, regrows from the ground up every year. Perennial plantings can be perfect for outdoor trap crops.
Phloem (Flo-em)
Food transporting vascular plant tissues or vessels of plants. Also referred to as “Bast.”
Pheromone (Ferr-Ro-Mohne)
A substance produced by an organism which elicits a response from another of the same species. Typically one thinks of a pheromone as a sexual signal, but it may be used to register food, raise an alarm, etc.
Photosynthesis (Foh-toh-SiN-thee-siss)
The process by which a plant, using the sun’s energy, converts carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates. The by-product, usually, is oxygen.
Photoperiod (Foh-toh-PEER-ee-odd)
The quantity of hours in a day [D] or night [N] is the photoperiod — measuring daylength photoperiod is the standard by default. The length of this has bearing on the lives of insect, plants, animals, even people. Moreso on the bugs, though.
Phytophagous (fii-TOFF-ayy-Gus)
An herbivore. One which subsists of plant tissue and/or fluids.
Phytotoxic (fii-TOH-toX-ihk)
A substance or compound which is toxic to plants. Some pesticides are phytotoxic.
Phytotoxins (fii-TOH-toX-sinnz)
In a nutshell, planticides, plant poisons.
Polyphagic (pAWL-lee-fahl-GIK)
Capable of eating a wide variety of food types. For insects this may consist of multiple pests in addition to honey dew, pollen, etc.
PPE (Acronym) (Pee Pee Eee)
Personal Protective Equipment. When applying pesticides and such, people are supposed to don special clothing equipment referred to as PPE. This can be anything from long-sleeve shirt, pants, gloves, and goggles, to a full body suit with respirator. It all depends on the compound used and its labeling.
PPQ (Abbreviation) (Pee Pee Queue)
Plant Protection and Quarantine. A divison of the USDA’s APHIS. The name is hopefully self-evident.
Predator (preh-dah-Torr)
Any living thing which hunts down and eats its prey for the purpose of this glossary. Insect and mite predators specifically.
Prey (prayy)
Any living thing which is hunted down and eaten by a predator for the purpose of this glossary. Our pests: aphids, fungus gnat larvae, whitefly larvae, etc… all make great prey!
Proboscis (pro-bosS-Kiss)
Think Slurpee straw, a really sharp one. Some insects, like true bugs, and mosquitoes, all come equiped with these handy feeding utensils/weapons. Often the proboscis will be used to deliver toxins which break down the prey’s tissues and then the device is used again to extract the resultant fluids. Sorry, I had to say it.
Pupae (s. pupa) (peww-payy)
Puparia, pupal. A third-stage form of an immature insect which undergoes a complete metamorphosis. It’s the stage after the final larval instar (the brief tranisiton is pre-pupal). After the pupal stage is adulthood. A cocoon is a pupa.
Q
Quarantine (kwaR-enn-teen)
To isolate or maintain is isolation. A method of allowing hazards like pests and diseases to manifest themselves before releasing the subject from quarantine.
Quiescence (kwee-eSS-Sense)
To be at rest. A period of deep inactivity. Similar to hibernation.
R
REI (Abbreviation) (arR Ee eye)
Re-Entry Interval. (See PPE.) After spraying EPA-registered pesticides into greenhouses and other structures, a period of time must pass before greenhouse employees are allowed back into the factility without the proper PPE.
Residual (ree-szid-uu-al)
As it pertains here, residual refers to two things: Effect and Period (Duration). The residual effect of a particular chemical may be moderately toxic, while it may also have a residual period of many weeks — reamaining moderately toxic, at least to the biocontrols agents anyway.
S
Scavenger (skav-VEN-jerr)
Something which tends to eats whatever is available as long as its dead. Something which eats detritus. Hypoaspis miles might be considered a scavenger. Fortunately certain pests are also part of their diet.
Septicemia (sepp-TiH-see-mee-yuh)
A poisoning or contamination of the blood. The blood becomes septic and spreads bacteria throughout the body. This can cause death and often does.
Scouting (skoww-ting)
The act of dedicated and systematic plant inspecting, specifically testing certain specimens for pestiferous insects, mites and/or diseases while giving general crop overview. Includes identification, monitoring, data extrapolation and recording. And more.
Solarize (soll-are-RIze)
To expose to the sun. In this case, for prolonged periods in order to kill pests and soil diseases. A method of trapping the heat energy of the sun is used, usually a heavy plastic film capable of dealing with the heat.
Spiracles (spEER-ihk-kulls)
Breathing holes. An aperature or opening, or group threreof, used for the purpose of gaseous exchange for vital respiratory purposes. These spiracles are often found in rows along the sides of insects’ bodies. Weird, huh?
Sterilize (STERr-ilL-iize)
The clean or remove all bacterial and viral presence from something, an oblject, surface, etc. Prevents the transfer of pests and diseases. A clean ship…
Symbiotic (Sim-bEE-OT-ihk)
Pertaining to a relationship between two dissimilar but interdependant organisms. This relationship is sometimes of the host-parasite variety, but to be symbiotic, it must be mutually beneficial.
Systemic (Siss-TEM-ihk)
In reference to a chemical pesticide, a systemic chemical is applied to the growing medium, often in a granular or micro-encapsulated form. Its active ingredient(s) is translocated through the plant via the plant’s vascular system.
T
Thorax (thorR-axx)
The middle part of an insect, located between the head and abdomen. Akin to the human torso, if you will. The insect’s legs are attacthed to the thorax.
Toxic (TOXx-ick)
Poisonous. Toxic item cannot be consumed, touched, etc., depending. In this context it is referencing a pesticide which is toxic to biocontrol agents. If toxic to plants it’s phytotoxic.
Translocate (tranz-LOH-kate)
To move or reposition something. The movement of liquids is most relavant in the context of this site.
Trap (trahpp)
The act (v.) or device (n.) which traps. I often refer to a trap crop which by way of providing shelter, food, diversity and good times for all bugs, works as a trap in one way. A good trap-crop system can contain all the biocontrol activity in close proximity to a cash crop. A nice bed of some selected flowering perennial plants would work.
U
Unicellular (yeww-nee-SELL-uu-larr)
Organisms consisting a single cell. This is true of bacteria.
USDA (Abbreviation) (uU eSS Dee Aay)
United States Department of Agriculture. The governmental divisions handles all things related to biocontrol and IPM. This includes authorizing importation.
V
Vascular (vahs-KUL-larr)
By which means a living organism moves or translocates life-giving fluids through its system or body.
Vector (vekk-Torr)
An organism which produces a pathogenic fungus. I think this also pertains to an insect who can also transmit said fungus during its feeding activities.
Vermiculite (verr-MICK-kul-lite)
This is sterile — immediately post manufacture that is — and made of heat-expanded mica. The layers trap moisture that when heated exapnd and form a soft, lightweight, neutral material.
Vermiculture (verr-mee-kul-tuur)
The act of rearing or producing worms for fishing or composting. Typically the latter as it pertains to this material.
Virus (vii-Rruss)
The meaning of this word in this text is the same as it means in your dictionary. The viral strains in this case target certain plants. Just as small, just as deadly.
Viviparously (viv-vAH-payer-us-lee)
Quite simply it is live birth. Devloping inside the mother rather than inside an egg. Humans are vivaparous.
W
WPS (Abbreviation) (dubbauu pee ess)
Worker Protection Standard. This self-explanatory starndard was created by the EPA. It spawned new acronyms such as REI and PPE.
X
Xeriscape (zerr-eeh-skaap)
A desert-dry garden, regulated hot/dry greenhouse environment, or extremely water-conservative landscape planting.
Y
Yield (yeel’d)
In my glossary it denotes a quantified output whether it be crop- or bug-associated.
Z
N/A