Biocontrol/IPM Glossary

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Nitrogen (nii-TROH-jen)
An element essential to plant growth. It is found in most fertilizers. Referencing the three digits on fertlizer products, nitrogen is the first. For instance, 5-4-3 equates to 5% nitrogen. High nitorgen content in plants can lead to infestation by aphids.
Nocturnal (mohK-terr-Nal)
Hunting, feeding, and general living at night.
Nomadic (noh-MAD-dikk)
To travel from place to place in response to certain queues, such the availability of food.
Nymph (nimmff)
An intermidiate development stage of an insect which undergoes an incomplete metamorphosis. The nymphal stage. It, too, like Larva, is a numbered instar.



Organic (orr-Gann-ihK)
Of, relating to, or derived from living organisms: organic matter. a) Of, marked by, or involving the use of fertilizers or pesticides that are strictly of animal or vegetable origin: organic vegetables; an organic farm. b) Raised or conducted without the use of drugs, hormones, or synthetic chemicals: organic chicken; organic cattle farming.
Organism (orr-Gann-Nism)
A living being. Any living plant or animal consisting of an organized body which has interactive and interdependant parts that perform vital functions.
Ostioles (ahst-ee-Oolz)
A pore or any small opening in the skin or outer surface of an arthorpod.
Ovipositor (ahh-vee-POZ-it-torr)
An egg-layng apparatus found on female insects. It is typically located at the posterior end of the abdomen. Some ovipositors can lay eggs inside the host, some only external of a host or other surface, and others serve more than one purpose. Some social wasps have a modified ovipositor. It is designed to not only deposit eggs (in the cells they build) but can penetrate skin and deliver toxins. We know it as a stinger.



Paedogenesis (pay-doh-jen-ee-siss)
When an underdeveloped insect, a larva for instance, reproduces prior to reaching maturity.
Parasite (pahr-eh-syTe)
An organism which lives in or on another organism. This is typically a micro-macro relationship which is on-going. The host usually persists serving the parasite. Sometimes the relationship is symbiotic.
Parasitoid (pahr-eh-syT-toyd)
An organism which lives in or on another organism. This is typically a micro-micro or macro-macro relationship which is temporary. The host typically dies serving the parasitoid, often being no more than an incubator, food source, and nursery for the parasitoid’s offspring. The relationship is never symbiotic.
Parthenogenetic (parr-thenn-Noh-JEN-Net-ihk)
An organism having the ability to reproduce with fetilization or egg development.
Pathogen (pahth-Oh-jenn)
A disease-causing organism.
Perennial (pur-REN-nee-al)
To be, annually: A plant type that, after a typical annual die-back during the winter, regrows from the ground up every year. Perennial plantings can be perfect for outdoor trap crops.
Phloem (Flo-em)
Food transporting vascular plant tissues or vessels of plants. Also referred to as “Bast.”
Pheromone (Ferr-Ro-Mohne)
A substance produced by an organism which elicits a response from another of the same species. Typically one thinks of a pheromone as a sexual signal, but it may be used to register food, raise an alarm, etc.
Photosynthesis (Foh-toh-SiN-thee-siss)
The process by which a plant, using the sun’s energy, converts carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates. The by-product, usually, is oxygen.
Photoperiod (Foh-toh-PEER-ee-odd)
The quantity of hours in a day [D] or night [N] is the photoperiod — measuring daylength photoperiod is the standard by default. The length of this has bearing on the lives of insect, plants, animals, even people. Moreso on the bugs, though.
Phytophagous (fii-TOFF-ayy-Gus)
An herbivore. One which subsists of plant tissue and/or fluids.
Phytotoxic (fii-TOH-toX-ihk)
A substance or compound which is toxic to plants. Some pesticides are phytotoxic.
Phytotoxins (fii-TOH-toX-sinnz)
In a nutshell, planticides, plant poisons.
Polyphagic (pAWL-lee-fahl-GIK)
Capable of eating a wide variety of food types. For insects this may consist of multiple pests in addition to honey dew, pollen, etc.
PPE (Acronym) (Pee Pee Eee)
Personal Protective Equipment. When applying pesticides and such, people are supposed to don special clothing equipment referred to as PPE. This can be anything from long-sleeve shirt, pants, gloves, and goggles, to a full body suit with respirator. It all depends on the compound used and its labeling.
PPQ (Abbreviation) (Pee Pee Queue)
Plant Protection and Quarantine. A divison of the USDA’s APHIS. The name is hopefully self-evident.
Predator (preh-dah-Torr)
Any living thing which hunts down and eats its prey for the purpose of this glossary. Insect and mite predators specifically.
Prey (prayy)
Any living thing which is hunted down and eaten by a predator for the purpose of this glossary. Our pests: aphids, fungus gnat larvae, whitefly larvae, etc… all make great prey!
Proboscis (pro-bosS-Kiss)
Think Slurpee straw, a really sharp one. Some insects, like true bugs, and mosquitoes, all come equiped with these handy feeding utensils/weapons. Often the proboscis will be used to deliver toxins which break down the prey’s tissues and then the device is used again to extract the resultant fluids. Sorry, I had to say it.
Pupae (s. pupa) (peww-payy)
Puparia, pupal. A third-stage form of an immature insect which undergoes a complete metamorphosis. It’s the stage after the final larval instar (the brief tranisiton is pre-pupal). After the pupal stage is adulthood. A cocoon is a pupa.



Quarantine (kwaR-enn-teen)
To isolate or maintain is isolation. A method of allowing hazards like pests and diseases to manifest themselves before releasing the subject from quarantine.
Quiescence (kwee-eSS-Sense)
To be at rest. A period of deep inactivity. Similar to hibernation.


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